By Haley Daley
What did the Albigensians believe?
The Albigensians were a group of people primarily in the south of france. They believed in a dualistic world, meaning they believe in two Gods, a good and an evil. The good God was the God of spiritual things, the Evil God was the god of materials things; things that can be perceived with the senses. So, they believed that you wanted as little contact with material things as possible. They believed in living a life of self denial. They also believed one of the greatest sins was a woman who gives birth, because she is bringing more evil matter into the world, she brought another human body into the world and bodies are evil because they are material. Because of these beliefs, the Albigensians were very opposed to the Church. They believed that the sacraments were wrong because God would not use material things. They also disagreed with oath taking.
Describe the mendicant orders of the thirteenth century.
Mendicant means begging. These are people that begged for their sustenance. They would preach or do good deeds and people would provide for them their survival needs. A member of any Roman Catholic religious order who assumes a vow of poverty and supports himself or herself by work and charitable contributions is considered Mendicant. The mendicant orders began with the Franciscans. St. Francis horrifies his father when He sells all he has and gives his life up to preaching. St. Francis has a dream where God commissioned him to repair his church because it was falling down. He takes this literally and proceeds to repair buildings throughout the Church. St. Dominic, who founded the Dominicans, was very impressed with St. Francis, but he was different. He concentrates more on education and learning. There were also many more groups involved in the mendicant orders.
What was the significance of King Philip IV of France?
Philip IV (Philip the Fair, because of his physical appearance) was actually a pious man, especially after the death of his wife in 1305, which you wouldn’t assume because of the disagreements and disputes he had with the church. He had a high view of what his powers are and ought to be. He wanted to redeem Roman law, especially the emperor Justinian’s laws that focus power in the Emperor. He demands that all French people be absolutely loyal to him as emperor, regardless of any other feudal obligations. He engaged in many military campaigns. Because of his engagement in war,he needed more money. He debased the currency and put heavy taxes on imports and exports, plus a special war tax. Philip accepted money from French barons who owed military duties to the French crown instead of military service. He also despoiled (take the property of) the Jews, the bankers, and the Templars. His actions disordered the national economy, rising prices led the people to poverty, taxation retarded industry, and crippled commerce. His actions caused much chaos, confusion, and poverty in France where he reigned.